А. И. Курпешева, Е. В. Мезина, Д. Ю. Тулепбергенова

А. И. Курпешева, Е. В. Мезина, Д. Ю. Тулепбергенова

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

В ОБЛАСТИ ТРАНСПОРТНЫХ ПРОЦЕССОВ
И КОМПЛЕКСОВ

Учебное пособие

Допущено редакционно-издательским советом
Астраханского государственного технического университета
в качестве учебного пособия для студентов высших учебных заведений,
обучающихся по направлениям 190700.62 «Технология транспортных процессов», 190100.62 «Наземные транспортно-технологические комплексы»,
190600.62 «Эксплуатация транспортно-технологических машин и комплексов»

Астрахань

Издательство АГТУ


УДК 811.111 (075.8):656

ББК 81.43.21-923:39

К93

Рецензенты: Стомпель Е.М., кандидат филологических наук, профессор кафедры английской филологии Астраханского государственного университета

Исамулаева Ю.А., кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры общих и социально-экономических дисциплин АФ ФГБОУ ВПО «Саратовская государственная юридическая академия»

Дульгер Н. В., кандидат технических наук, доцент кафедры «Техника и технология наземного транспорта» Астраханского государственного технического университета

Шелепова Н.В., кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры «Иностранные языки в гуманитарном образовании» Астраханского государственного технического университета кафедра английской филологии (Астраханского государственного университета);

Исамулаева Ю. А., кандидат педагогических наук, доцент кафедры общих и социально-экономических дисциплин АФ ФГБОУ ВПО «Саратовская государственная юридическая академия»

К93 Английский язык в области транспортных процессов и комплексов : учеб. пособие / сост. А. И. Курпешева, Е. В. Мезина, Д. Ю. Тулепбергенова ; Астрахан. гос. техн. ун-т. – Астрахань : Изд-во АГТУ, 2014. – 178 с. ISBN . Предназначено для студентов технических вузов, как для аудиторной так и для самостоятельной работы бакалавров первых и вторых курсов очной и заочной формы обучения, обучающихся в высших учебных заведениях по направлениям 190700.62 «Технология транспортных процессов», 190100.62 «Наземные транспортно-технологические комплексы», 190600.62 «Эксплуатация транспортно-технологических машин и комплексов». Основной целью пособия является овладение навыками развития речевой коммуникации на основе текстов профессиональной направленности. Каждая глава содержит обширный электромеханический контент, который логически связан со сложными грамматическими конструкциями, представленными в данном пособии.

ISBN 978-5-89154-537-3 © Курпешева А. И., Мезина Е. В.,
Тулепбергенова. Д. Ю., 2014



© ФГБОУ ВПО «Астраханский государственный технический университет», 2014


ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

ВВЕДЕНИЕ................................................................................................... 6

UNIT I : POLICEMEN AND PEDESTRIANS' DUTIES............................ 7

TEXT I. Forms and methods of traffic supervision...................................... 7

TEXT II. Pedestrians’ duties....................................................................... 10

TEXT III. Passing at restrictive signal of traffic light or at restrictive motion of regulator...................................................................................................... 15

TEXT IV. Additional requirements to movement of bicycles, bikes, cartages and cattle route...................................................................................................... 19

TEXT V. The actions of traffic patrol service worker in road traffic accidents 23

UNIT II : INSURANCE AND PAYMENTS............................................... 27

TEXT I. Definition of insurance payment size in case of causing harm to life and health of injured............................................................................................ 27

TEXT II. Harm caused to persons as a result of breadwinner’s death and payments 32

TEXT III. Validity, order of conclusion and changing obligatory insurance treaty 38

TEXT IV. Obligatory insurance.................................................................. 42

UNIT III : SAFETY...................................................................................... 46

TEXT I. Safety in the car............................................................................ 46

TEXT II. On the road.................................................................................. 48

TEXT III. If the car breaks down................................................................ 51

TEXT IV. Road safety................................................................................ 54

TEXT V. Car tire safety.............................................................................. 56

TEXT VI. Choosing your new tires and getting the best out of them......... 58

UNIT IV : TRAFFIC RULES AND SIGNS................................................ 60

TEXT I. Traffic rules and signs................................................................... 60

TEXT II. Driving in New South Wales....................................................... 63

TEXT III. Seatbelts..................................................................................... 65

TEXT IV. Traffic signals............................................................................ 65

TEXT V. Driving cars in England............................................................................... 66

UNIT V : MEANS OF TRANSPORT......................................................... 67

TEXT I. The history of land transport........................................................ 67

TEXT II. Land transport............................................................................. 68



TEXT III. Water transport.......................................................................... 74

TEXT IV. Road and tunnels....................................................................... 81

UNIT VI : HEAVY EQUIPMENT: TYPES OF EXCAVATORS............. 83

TEXT I. Excavators.................................................................................... 83

TEXT II. Steam shovel............................................................................... 88

TEXT III. Power shovel.............................................................................. 91

TEXT IV.Compact excavator..................................................................... 94

TEXT V.Dragline excavator........................................................................ 97

TEXT VI.Suction excavator...................................................................... 100

UNIT VII : TYPES OF CRANES AND OTHER KIND OF HEAVY EQUIPMENT 102

TEXT I. Crane........................................................................................ 102

TEXT II. Overhead crane........................................................................ 105

TEXT III. Truck-mounted crane............................................................. 109

TEXT IV. Hammerhead crane................................................................ 111

TEXT V. Tower crane............................................................................ 113

TEXT VI. Grader.................................................................................... 115

TEXT VII. Loader................................................................................... 117

TEXT VIII. Bulldozer............................................................................. 120

UNIT VIII : AUTOMOBILE,ITS SYSTEMS AND PARTS................... 122

TEXT I. Automobile.................................................................................. 122

TEXT II. Automobile industry.................................................................. 126

UNIT IX : POWER SYSTEM................................................................... 129

TEXT I. Power system.............................................................................. 129

TEXT II. Engine........................................................................................ 130

TEXT III. Engine types.............................................................................. 131

TEXT IV. Fuel supply.......................................................................................................... 132

TEXT V. Exhaust system.................................................................................................... 134

TEXT VI. Cooling and heating system.............................................................................. 135

UNIT X : DRIVETRAIN........................................................................... 137

TEXT I. Transmission............................................................................... 137

TEXT II. Front-and-rear-wheel drive......................................................... 140

UNIT XI : SUPPORT SYSTEMS.............................................................. 142

TEXT I. Suspension system...................................................................... 142

TEXT II. Wheels and tires......................................................................... 143

TEXT III. Steеring..................................................................................... 144

TEXT IV. Brakes....................................................................................... 145

TEXT V. Electrical system........................................................................ 147

TEXT VI. Ignition system......................................................................... 147

TEXT VII. Safety features......................................................................... 148

UNIT XII : ADDITIONAL MATERIAL FOR READING AND TRANSLATION 149

TEXT I. Fuel and lubrication..................................................................... 149

TEXT II. Cooling system........................................................................... 150

TEXT III. Ignition system.......................................................................... 153

TEXT IV. The starter................................................................................ 154

TEXT V. The power transmission. The clutch.......................................... 154

TEXT VI. Manual and automatic transmissions....................................... 155

TEXT VII. The running gear...................................................................... 156

TEXT VIII. Axles...................................................................................... 157

TEXT IX. The control system.................................................................... 160

TEXT X. Steering system.......................................................................... 162

TEXT XI. Brakes....................................................................................... 164

TEXT XII. Universal shaft......................................................................... 133

TEXT XIII. Differential gear...................................................................... 167

TEXT XIV. Axle drive............................................................................... 168

TEXT XV. Chassis. Frame........................................................................ 168

TEXT XVI. Air transport.......................................................................... 171

ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ………………………………………………… …………177

БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК................................................... 178

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов, обучающихся в высших технических учебных заведениях по направлениям подготовки 190700.62 «Технология транспортных процессов», 190100.62 «Наземные транспортно-технологические комплексы», 190600.62 "Эксплуатация транспортно-технологических машин и комплексов"

В пособии рассмотрены вопросы, связанные с классификацией, системой обозначения, областью применения и конструктивными особенностями грузовых АТС; устройство, состав, принцип действия каждой системы автомобиля, различные типы двигателей и системы, непосредственно их обслуживающие. Авторы также предприняли попытку уделить особое внимание проблеме организации и безопасности транспортных средств в системе «природа—человек—общество», учитывающее влияние природных, производственных и социальных факторов на условия работы транспорта.

UNIT I

TEXT I

The Hardest For Her

“Tell me, please, what seemed to be the hardest when you were learning to drive?”

“The trees!”

***

fig.1

“May I see your permit to carry extra headlights, miss?” (fig.1)

TEXT II

Pedestrians' duties

TEXT III

III. Answer the questions.

1. What is the object of administrative violation?

2. What provides traffic safety?

3. Must drivers always follow the requirements of regulator?

4. In which cases are the drivers allowed further movement?

5. Where must the drivers stop according to paragraph 6.13?

6. What does the raising arm mean?

7. Who must understand regulator except drivers?

8. What can be used for better visibility?

9. What does red signal prohibit?

10. In which cases can drivers use emergency braking?

TEXT IV

XI. Translate into English.

1. Тормози медленно!

2. Не обгоняйте их!

3. Плавно отпустите сцепление.

4. Кажется, это совсем легко.

5. Включите зажигание.

6. Не тормози так резко.

7. Вот рычаг переключения передач!

8. Машина позади собирается нас обогнать.

9. Не давите на педаль газа так резко!

10. Держитесь левее.

After the Accident.

“…Yes, and my mother-in-law under the wheels of the ruined car…”

“What a misfortune! Was she old?”

“No, I bought it only two months ago.”

***

Fig.2

“Would you be so kind as to move your lorry a little?”(fig.2)

TEXT V

UNIT II

INSURANCE AND PAYMENTS

TEXT I

В страховой компании.

Клиент: Добрый день. Я клиент вашей компании. Машина моего мужа застрахована в вашей компании. Я хотел бы получить информацию о размере страховой выплаты при причинении вреда жизни здоровью потерпевших.

Консультант: Да, конечно. Можете рассказать в деталях, что произошло?

Клиент: Мой муж попал в аварию и поломал руку. Я знаю, что у него есть право на страховую выплату. Я хотела бы знать, какие документы необходимы, чтобы получить ее.

Консультант: При предъявлении требования о возмещении утраченного заработка необходимы следующие документы:

А) медицинское заключение с указанием характера полученных травм, диагноза, периода нетрудоспособности;

Б) заключение медико-социальной и ли судебно-медицинской экспертизы о степени утраты нетрудоспособности;

В) справка работодателя (учебного заведения, органа социального обеспечения) о размере заработка (дохода, пенсии, стипендии) пострадавшего за период необходимый для исчисления возмещения;

Г) другие документы, подтверждающие доходы потерпевшего, которые учитываются при определении размера утраченного заработка

Размер подлежащего возмещению утраченного потерпевшим заработка определяется в процентах к среднему ежемесячному заработку до получения увечья или вреда здоровью, либо до утраты им трудоспособности.

Клиент: Спасибо.

Консультант: Итак, как только вы принесете вышеупомянутые документы к нам в офис, мы начнем разбирать ваш случай. Мы будем ждать вас.

Клиент: Хорошо, я приду через несколько дней.

To Avoid an Accident

Fig.3

“Why are you driving at such a high speed?”

“You see, the brakes on my motor car are out of order, and I wanted to come home as quickly as possible to avoid an accident.” (fig.3)

TEXT II

TEXT III

IV. Answer the questions.

1. When was obligatory insurance introduced? 2. Many people think that it’s very comfortable: do you think with them? 3. Do insurance companies always make payments? 4. Which most influential insurance companies do you know? 5. Can you always rely on them? 6. Are the insurance companies always responsible and honest? 7. What insurance company would you choose? 8. How much is compensation in insurance company? 9. Who must inform you about increase of transport insurance period? 10. Do people often have troubles while including obligatory insurance treaty?

VI. Is it true or false?

1. Insurer while fulfilling application for conclusion of obligatory insurance treaty fill line “State registration sign”.

2. Insurer isn’t responsible for entirety and authenticity of information.

3. While concluding obligatory insurance treaty assurer has a right to make inspection of transport means at insurer’s place of residence.

4. Obligatory insurance was introduced since the 1st of January.

5. All insurance cases can’t be stipulated in an agreement.

6. Obligatory insurance treaty is concluded for 2 years.

7. Every driver must have policy of obligatory insurance/

8. Every transport mean must be registered.

9. Citizens concluding obligatory insurance treaty must pay attention to the validity period.

10. Maximum sum of insurance sum is 120.000 rubles. It concerns as Russian made cars as foreign ones.

TEXT IV

Obligatory insurance

UNIT III

SAFETY

TEXT I

Safety in the car.

TEXT II

On the road.

TEXT III

If the car breaks down.

TEXT IV

Road safety.

II. Answer the questions.

1. Are many or few people killed in road accidents? 2. What news will you often hear over the English radio at 8 o'clock? 3. What problem is paid great attention to in many countries? 4. Why do so many accidents happen? 5. Whose fault was it that the woman was knocked down? 6. Why was it difficult for the boy to control his bicycle? 7. What happened to the boy? 8. To which side of the road does the traffic keep in Great Britain and to which in the USSR? 9. What must you do before crossing the road? 10. Who must you help to cross the road? 11. What must the driver do to make the roads safe? 12. Do all the cyclists in Delhi obey the traffic rules? 13. Where must the drivers be especially careful?

TEXT V

Car tire safety.

TEXT VI

UNIT IV

TRAFFIC RULES AND SINGS

TEXT I

Traffic rules and sings.

IV. Make up Participle I.

Поворачивая направо, управляя автомобилем, следуя маршруту, наблюдая за дорогой, не создавая опасности движению других автомобилей, исполняя его приказы, держа в руках жезл, набирая скорость, позволяя пешеходам перейти дорогу, двигаясь по одной линии в одном направлении, соблюдая дорожные знаки, сигналы и светофоры, подавая сигнал, переходящий дорогу пешеход, ожидая разрешающего сигнала светофора.

TEXT II

Driving in New South Wales

I. Read and translate the text:

Visitors driving in New South Wales must observe the licence requirements for visitors. You must carry your licence with you when you are driving. There is an on-the-spot fine for not having your licence with you. Additionally, if your licence is not in English, you must carry an English translation when driving in Australia.

If you are uncertain of any requirement or have other road safety inquiries, telephone the Roads and Traffic Authority, NSW on 132 213.

Speed limits.

Drive at or below the posted speed limit. Slow down more in wet weather. The Police regularly conduct speed checks using speed cameras, radar and lasers along all types of roads.

The general speed limit in cities and towns is 60 km/h but many local and suburban roads have a 50 km/h speed limit.

The maximum speed on highways in New South Wales is 100 km/h. The maximum speed limit on motorways and freeways is 110 km/h. Heavy penalties apply to drivers exceeding the limits.

Rest every two hours! Australia is a vast country and car trips outside major cities may take several hours or even days.

Driver fatigue is a serious road safety concern, involved in nearly a fifth of fatal crashes in Australia. If you are driving long distances (such as from a Regional area to Sydney, or to a park and ride interchange location), try to have a passenger with a current driver's licence share the driving with you. You should both have a full night's sleep the previous night, particularly if you are likely to be driving at times when you would normally be asleep.

Take at least a 15 minute break from driving every two hours. This is important even if you are near your destination, as fatigue crashes can occur near a journey's end.

It is also possible for fatigue crashes to happen on short journeys, or near the start of a trip. The way to avoid these is simply not to drive if you feel tired and know your concentration is not at its best.

To find out about the distances between major interstate centres in Australia, use our Time & Distance Calculator.

Australia has strict laws about drinking alcohol and driving. Australian Police are authorised to stop any vehicle and breath test the driver at any time. There is no absolute safe level of alcohol consumption for competent driving. For fully licensed car drivers the legal limit is 0.05 g/100ml. For special licence categories the legal limit is 0.02 (which in practice means no alcohol at all). Learner and provisional drivers or riders (which includes equivalent L and P drivers and riders visiting NSW) must not exceed zero blood alcohol. If tested by the Police, drivers must be below their allowable legal limit.

If you are going to drink any alcohol the best advice is to plan not to drive at all. Guides are available for drinking very moderate quantities of alcohol over time and remaining below the 0.05 legal BAC level (for fully licensed car drivers) but because everybody's metabolism differs the effects of alcohol will not be the same in every case.

The police perform regular roadside "random breath testing" (RBT) of drivers in metropolitan and rural areas. There are heavy penalties for drink driving, including imprisonment (see Laws and Penalties for Alcohol).

TEXT III

Seatbelts

I. Read and translate the text:

It is a requirement for everyone, including visitors, to use seatbelts at all times. Baby capsules or child restraints must be used for all children.

Motorways and freeways

Because traffic travels at high speed on motorways and freeways, you must be especially alert.

Do not stop on a motorway or freeway, except in an emergency. If you must stop, move off the roadway completely

Do not make a 'U' turn or reverse on a motorway or freeway

Keep to the left, unless overtaking

Hazards

Warning signs usually tell you that there may be dangers ahead. Pictures, diagrams and symbols are used to alert you to danger.

Some of the most commonly seen warning signs are shown below:

TEXT IV

Traffic Signals

I. Read and translate the text:

A red traffic light means stop, green means go and yellow means you must stop if you can safely do so.

Arrows indicate whether traffic turning right or left is allowed to go (depending on which direction the arrow is pointed). For example, if the traffic lights are green, but an arrow pointing right is red, then traffic turning right is not allowed to go, but traffic going straight ahead is.

In cases where there are no left, or right arrows, a red light will mean 'stop' for everyone, and a green light will mean 'go' for everyone.

A flashing yellow arrow means you can turn, but watch carefully for pedestrians and give way to them.

Cycling provides an environmentally friendly alternative mode of transport while delivering health and fitness benefits to the community.

Cycling has a significant role to play in the New South Wales Government’s pursuit of a number of initiatives to decrease car dependence and improving the environment in accordance with the NSW State Plan.

The RTA, in conjunction with the NSW State Government has developed a four point action plan for bicycles in NSW that includes:

· Improving the NSW cycle way network.

· Making it safer to cycle.

· Increase community awareness of bicycles and bicycle use.

· Improving personal and environmental health.

· The NSW cycle way network

The NSW cycle way network stretches through metropolitan Sydney and regional NSW. The RTA is committed to ensuring provisions are made for bicycles in all new major infrastructures and maintenance works.

In recognition of the fact that most cycling takes place on local roads, the RTA offers joint funding to NSW Councils for the development and implementation of their local bicycle networks.

To help bicycle riders travelling around their communities, the RTA and many councils have produced cycle way maps. These maps are correct at time of publication and are updated as regularly as possible. For local area maps please contact your local council.

Throughout the year the RTA supports a number of events that promote bike usage among the community. The list and details of the events can be found in the ‘cycling events’ link at the top right hand corner.

TEXT V

Driving Cars In England.

I. Read and translate the text:

It is about the same to drive a car in England as anywhere else. To change a punctured tire in the wind and rain gives about the same pleasure outside London as outside Rio de Janeiro; it is not more fun to try to start up a cold motor with the handle in Moscow than in Manchester; the roughly 50-50 proportion between driv­ing an average car and pushing it is the same in Sydney and Edinburgh.

There are, however, a few characteristics which distin­guish the English motorists from the continental, and some points which the English motorists have to remember.

(1) In English towns there is a thirty miles an hour speed-limit and the police keep a watchful eye on lawbreakers. The fight against feckless driving is directed extremely skillfully and carefully according to the very best English detective traditions. It is practically impos­sible to find out whether you are being followed by a po­lice car or not. There are, however, a few indications which may help people of extraordinary intelligence and with very keen powers of observation:

(a) The police always use a 13 h.p. blue Wolseley car,

(b) three uniformed policemen sit in it; and

(c) on these cars you, can read the word POLICE written in large letters in front and rear, all in capitals — lit up during the hours of darkness.

(2) I think England is the only country in the world where you have to leave your lights on, even if you parking a brilliantly lit-up street. The advantage being that your battery gets exhausted, you cannot start up again and consequently the number of road accidents is greatly reduced. Safety first!

(3) Only motorists can answer this puzzling question: what are taxis for? A simple pedestrian knows that they Tare certainly not there to carry passengers.

Taxis, in fact, are a Christian institution. They are here to teach drivers modesty and humanity. They teach us never to be overconfident, they remind us that we never can tell what the next moment will bring for us, whe­ther we shall be able to drive on, or a taxi will bump into us from the back or the side.(4) There is a huge ideological warfare going on be­hind the scenes of the motorist world.

Whenever you stop your car in the City, the West End II or many other places, two or three policemen rush at you Rand tell you .that you must not park there. Where may j| you park? They shrug their shoulders. There are a couple of spots on the South Coast and in a village called Minchinhampton. Three cars may park there for half an hour every other Sunday morning between 7 and 8 a.m.

The police are perfectly right. After all, cars have been built to run, and run fast, so they should not stop.

This healthy philosophy of the police has been se­riously challenged by a certain group of motorists who maintain that cars have been built to park and not move. These people drive out to Hampstead Heath or Richmond on beautiful, sunny days; pull up all their windows and go to sleep. They do not get a spot of air; they arc mi­serably uncomfortable; they have nightmares, and the whole procedure is called "spending a lovely afternoon in the open."

UNIT V

MEANS OF TRANSPORT

TEXT I

TEXT II

Land transport.

II. Answer the questions.

1. What does the word "transport" mean? 2. What are the stage. of the history of transport? 3. What were the first porters? 4. What kind of animal was used first for carrying goods? 5. What did the inven­tion of the wheel bring? 6. Whom were the first roads made by? 7. What were the two problems to be solved? 8. What was a cabriolet like? 9. What is a taximeter like? 10. Is waiting time charged for?

TEXT III

Water transport.

II. Answer the questions.

1. What is the most important thing about water transport? 2. What is the distance covered by Kon-Tiki? 3. What did the Romans use their vessels for? 4. Until what century were galleys used? 5. What made the long voyages safer? 6. What century is the highest point in the development of sailing ships? 7. When did the first steamship cross the Atlantic? 8. What made it possible to built larger ships in the middle of the 19th century? 9. In what way did the industrial revolution in­fluence the size and power of ships? 10. What changes in ports took place during the industrial revolution? 11. What improvements in the type of engines were introduced during the 20th century? 12. How is diesel-engine ship called? When were they introduced? 13. What types of ships were introduced in 1950s? 14. How much fuel a week does the atomic ice-breaker need? 15. What is the operation of nuclear reactor accompanied by? 16. What kind of work must be carried out before sea­going ships can use rivers? 17. What city is the center of the network of the canals in France?

TEXT IV

Road and tunnels.

UNIT VI

HEAVY EQUIPMENT:

TYPES OF EXCAVATORS

TEXT I

Excavators

Fig. 4.

I. Read and translate the text using the words given below:

Excavators (Fig.4) are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom, stick, bucket and cab on a rotating platform (known as the "house"). The house sits atop an undercarriage with tracks or wheels. A cable-operated excavator uses winches and steel ropes to accomplish the movements. They are a natural progression from the steam shovels and often called power shovels. All movement and functions of a hydraulic excavator are accomplished through the use of hydraulic fluid, with hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors. Due to the linear actuation of hydraulic cylinders, their mode of operation is fundamentally different from cable-operated excavators.

Excavators are also called diggers, JCBs (a proprietary name, in an example of a generic trademark), mechanical shovels, or 360-degree excavators (sometimes abbreviated simply to 360). Tracked excavators are sometimes called "trackhoes" by analogy to the backhoe. In the UK, wheeled excavators are sometimes known as "rubber ducks."

Excavators are used in many ways:

· Digging of trenches, holes, foundations

· Material handling

· Brush cutting with hydraulic attachments

· Forestry work

· Demolition

· General grading/landscaping

· Heavy lift, e.g. lifting and placing of pipes

· Mining, especially, but not only open-pit mining

· River dredging

· Driving piles, in conjunction with a pile driver

Excavators come in a wide variety of sizes. The smaller ones are called mini or compact excavators. Caterpillar's smallest mini-excavator weighs 2,060 pounds (930 kg) and has 13 hp; their largest model is the largest excavator available (formally the Orenstein & Koppel RH400) the CAT 6090, it weighs in excess of 2,160,510 pounds (979,990 kg), has 4500 hp and has a bucket size of around 52.0 m depending on bucket fitted.

Engines in excavators drive hydraulic pumps; there are usually 3 pumps: the two main pumps are for supplying oil at high pressure (up to 5000 psi) for the rams, swing motor, track motors, and accessories, and the third is a lower pressure (700 psi) pump for Pilot Control, this circuit used for the control of the pool valves, this allows for a reduced effort required when operating the controls.

The two main sections of an excavator are the undercarriage and the house. The undercarriage includes the blade (if fitted), tracks, track frame, and final drives, which have a hydraulic motor and gearing providing the drive to the individual tracks, and the house includes the operator cab, counterweight, engine, fuel and hydraulic oil tanks. The house attaches to the undercarriage by way of a center pin, allowing the machine to slew 360° unhindered.

The main boom attaches to the house, and can be one of several different configurations:

Most are mono booms: these have no movement apart from straight up and down.

Some others have a knuckle boom which can also move left and right in line with the machine.

Another option is a hinge at the base of the boom allowing it to hydraulically pivot up to 180° independent to the house; however, this is generally available only to compact excavators.

There are also triple-articulated booms (TAB).

Attached to the end of the boom is the stick (or dipper arm). The stick provides the digging force needed to pull the bucket through the ground. The stick length is optional depending whether reach (longer stick) or break-out power (shorter stick) is required.

On the end of the stick is usually a bucket. A wide, large capacity (mud) bucket with a straight cutting edge is used for cleanup and levelling or where the material to be dug is soft, and teeth are not required. A general purpose (GP) bucket is generally smaller, stronger, and has hardened side cutters and teeth used to break through hard ground and rocks. Buckets have numerous shapes and sizes for various applications. There are also many other attachments which are available to be attached to the excavator for boring, ripping, crushing, cutting, lifting, etc.

Before the 1990s, all excavators had a long or conventional counterweight that hung off the rear of the machine to provide more digging force and lifting capacity. This became a nuisance when working in confined areas. In 1993 Yanmar launched the world's first Zero Tail Swing excavator, which allows the counterweight to stay inside the width of the tracks as it slews, thus being safer and more user friendly when used in a confined space. This type of machine is now widely used throughout the world.

There are two main types of "Control" configuration generally use in excavators to control the boom and bucket, both of which spread the four main digging controls between two x-y joysticks. This allows a skilled operator to control all four functions simultaneously. The most popular configuration in the US is the SAE controls configuration while in other parts of the world, the ISO control configuration is more common. Some manufacturers such as Takeuchi have switches that allow the operator to select which control configuration to use.

Hydraulic excavator capabilities have expanded far beyond excavation tasks with buckets. With the advent of hydraulic-powered attachments such as a breaker, a grapple or an auger, the excavator is frequently used in many applications other than excavation. Many excavators feature a quick coupler for simplified attachment mounting, increasing the machine's utilization on the jobsite. Excavators are usually employed together with loaders and bulldozers. Most wheeled, compact and some medium-sized (11 to 18-tonne) excavators have a backfill (or dozer) blade. This is a horizontal bulldozer-like blade attached to the undercarriage and is used for levelling and pushing removed material back into a hole.

II. Learn the vocabulary to the text:

House – корпус, отсек

Boom – стрела подъёмного крана или механической лопаты, укосина крана, стрела экскаватора

Stick – механическая коробка передач, ручка управления

Bucket – черпак, ковш экскаватора

Undercarriage – ходовая часть экскаватора

Cable-operated – с тросовым приводом

Winch – лебёдка, стальная катушка, соединённая с приводом для наматывания и сматывания каната

Backhoe – рычаг обратной копки экскаватора с обратной лопатой

Hydraulic attachment – накладная головка (вспомогательная деталь)

General grading – общее выравнивание, профилирование грунта

Pile driver – сваебойное средство, копровая установка

Swing motor – гидромотор поворотной платформы экскаватора

Spool valve – золотниковый клапан

Blade – нож, отвал (рабочая часть землеройных машин)

Track frame – корпус гусеницы, рама гусеницы, гусеничная балка

Center pin – ось, центрирующий штифт

Triple-articulated boom – трёхколенчатая стрела подъёмного крана

Dipper arm – рукоять стрелы экскаватора

Auger – бур, сверло

Coupler – соединительная муфта, шатун, хомут

Back fill blade – нож для обратной засыпки

III. Give the English equivalents to the following word combinations:

Кабина машиниста на экскаваторе, стальной трос, паровой экскаватор, одноковшовый экскаватор типа прямая лопата, односторонний запуск, видовой товарный знак, колёсный экскаватор, резиновая ткань для ремня (ременной передачи), загрузка (разгрузка) материалов, расчистка от кустарников, лесные работы, уничтожение, ландшафтная архитектура, открытая разработка, дноуглубительные работы, гусеничный мини-экскаватор, конечная передача, балласт крана, быстро поворачиваться или крутиться, свободный, автоманипулятор, петля или крюк, задняя часть машины, ограниченная площадь, рычаг управления, грейфер.

IV. Give the Russian equivalents to the following word combinations:

Heavy construction equipment, hydraulic cylinder, mode of operation, rotating platform, by analogy to, a proprietary name, digger, heavy lift, wide variety of sizes, reduced effort, to be of different configurations, the digging force, hard ground, various applications, boring, lifting capacity, hydraulic-powered attachment, supplying oil, break-out power, straight cutting edge, ripping, width of the track, to be frequently used, jobsite, medium-sized.

V. Answer the following questions using the information from the text:

1. What are excavators?

2. What does a cable-operated excavator use winch and steel ropes for?

3. Can you explain the difference between a hydraulic excavator and a cable-operated excavator?

4. How are excavators also called?

5. In what ways are excavators used? Enumerate them.

6. There are excavators of many sizes, aren’t they?

7. Describe the work of the engines in excavators.

8. Do you know two main sections of an excavator? What do they include?

9. What is the function of the stick?

10. What is used for cleanup and leveling?

11. Tell some words about the history of excavators.

12. Can you name the most popular configuration in the US?

13. Where is the excavator used?

VI. Complete the sentences:

1. An excavator consists of …

2. The undercarriage comprises…

3. Excavators are also called…

4. The stick is used for…

5. The function of the bucket is…

6. There are…pumps in the engine of an excavator.

7. Excavators are used for…

TEXT II

Steam shovel

Fig. 5

I. Read and translate the text using the words given below:

A steam shovel (Fig.5) is a large steam-powered excavating machine designed for lifting and moving material such as rock and soil. It is the earliest type of power shovel or excavator. They played a major role in public works in the 19th and early 20th century, being key to the construction of railroads and the Panama Canal. The development of simpler, cheaper diesel-powered shovels caused steam shovels to fall out of use in the 1930s.

A steam shovel comprises:

· a bucket

· boom and 'dipper stick'

· boiler

· water tank and coal bunker

· steam engines and winches

· operator's controls

· a rotating platform on a truck, on which everything is mounted

· wheels (or sometimes caterpillar tracks or railroad wheels)

· a house (on the platform) to contain and protect 'the works'

The shovel has several individual operations: it can raise or luff the boom, rotate the house, or extend the dipper stick with the boom or crowd engine, and raise or lower the dipper stick.

When digging at a rock face, the operator simultaneously raises and extends the dipper stick to fill the bucket with material. When the bucket is full, the shovel is rotated to load a railway car or motor truck. The locking pin on the bucket flap is released and the load drops away. The operator lowers the dipper stick, the bucket mouth self-closes, the pin relocks automatically and the process repeats.

Steam shovels usually had a three-man crew: engineer, fireman and ground man. There was much jockeying to do to move shovels: rails and timber blocks to move; cables and block purchases to attach; chains and slings to rig; and so on. On soft ground, shovels used timber mats to help steady and level the ground. The early models were not self-propelled; rather they would use the boom to maneuver themselves.

II. Learn the vocabulary to the text:

steam shovel экскаватор

lifting -поднятие

moving – перемещение

power shovel = excavator

to fall out of use –перестать использоваться

a bucket - ковш, черпак (экскаватора и т. п.)

boom - стрела, вылет (крана) ; укосина

dipper stick - рукоять ковша (экскаватора

boiler - (паровой) котел, бойлер

water tank - бак для воды

coalbunker - угольный бункер

winch – лебедка

a rotating platform – вращающаяся платформа

caterpillar track – гусеничный трак

railroad wheels – рельсовое передвижения

luff - 1) изменять вылет или угол наклона стрелы (крана)

2) перемещать груз в горизонтальном направлении (краном)

crowd - давить, толкать

rockface 1) защитная каменная наброска

2) поверхность камня с бугристой фактурой (со следами обработки инструментом)

to fill the bucket with material – зачерпнуть ковшом грунт

to load - погрузить

pin - штифт, болт, шкворень, ось, цапфа, шейка, чека, шплинт

bucket flap - дно или крышка ковша (экскаватора)

bucket mouth – отверстие ковша

three-man crew – бригада из 3 человек

III. Give the English equivalents to the following word combinations:

горная порода, почва, играть важную роль в, строительство железных дорог, спроектированный, маневрировать, экскаватор на паровом двигателе, кочегар, оператор или механик (обслуживает работу того или иного агрегата), одновременно, выдвигать (стрелу), опускать (стрелу), копая каменную поверхность, стрела или рукоять (ковша), выйти из употребления, всевозможные действия для движения экскаватора, вагон, грузовик, Панамский канал, гусеничный трак

IV. Give the Russian equivalents to the following word combinations, paying attention to the usage of the Infinitive:

much jockeying to do; to move shovels; rails and timber blocks to move; cables and block purchases to attach; chains and slings to rig; to help steady and level the ground; to maneuver themselves; to fall out of use in the 1930s.

V. Answer the following questions using the information from the text:

1. What is a steam shovel?

2. When did this type of shovel fall out of use and why?

3. What are the main parts of a steam shovel?

4. What operations does a steam shovel have?

5. Try to explain the process of steam shovel operation?

6. What was the crew and what should they do to move shovels?

VI. Translate the sentences paying attention to the usage of the Participle:

1. We used parts welded from two pieces.

2. The electrodes being used were not of good quality.

3. Spectography is a reliable method being used in materials testing.

4. When used, this method gives the best results.

VII. In each sentence only one of the three answers is correct. Choose the correct answer:

1. My son likes …. books.

reading; b) read; c) having read;

2. It is necessary for you... the truth.

to know; b) knew; c) know;

3. He seems … something.

write; b) writing; c) to be writing;

4. I can't … to the party.

to go; b) go; c) have gone;

5. She wanted … a job there.

find; b) finding; c) to find;

6. Don't let the child … with a knife.

to play; b) play; c) playing;

7. He finished … and down.

speak; b) speaking; c) to speak;

8. She is looking forward to … a new book.

get; b) be getting; c) getting.

9. What makes you … so?

to think; b) thinking; c) think.

10. The film is worth … .

to see; b) see; c) seeing.

Power Shovel

Fig. 6.

I. Read and translate the text using the words given below:

A power shovel (also stripping shovel or front shovel or electric mining shovel) is a bucket-equipped machine, usually electrically powered, used for digging and loading earth or fragmented rock and for mineral extraction (Fig. 6).

Shovels normally consist of a revolving deck with a power plant, driving and controlling mechanisms, usually a counterweight, and a front attachment, such as a boom or crane which supports a handle with a digger at the end. The machinery is mounted on a base platform with tracks or wheels. The bucket is also known as the dipper. Modern bucket capacities range from 8 m3 to nearly 80 m3.

Power shovels are used principally for excavation and removal of overburden in open-cut mining operations, though it may include loading of minerals, such as coal. They are the modern equivalent of steam shovels, and operate in a similar fashion.

The shovel operates using several main motions:

· hoist - pulling the bucket up through the bank (i.e. the bank of material being dug)

· crowd - moving the dipper handle out or in to control the depth of cut and when positioning to dump

· swing - rotating the shovel between digging and dumping

· propel - moving the shovel unit to different locations or dig positions

· A shovel's work cycle, or digging cycle, consists of four phases:

· digging

· swinging

· dumping

· returning

The digging phase consists of crowding the dipper into the bank, hoisting the dipper to fill it, then retracting the full dipper from the bank. The swinging phase occurs once the dipper is clear of the bank both vertically and horizontally. The operator controls the dipper through a planned swing path and dump height until it is suitably positioned over the haul unit (e.g. truck). Dumping involves opening the dipper door to dump the load, while maintaining the correct dump height. Returning is when the dipper swings back to the bank, and involves lowering the dipper into the tuck position to close the dipper door.

II. Learn the vocabulary to the text:

power shovel – одноковшовый экскаватор

stripping shovel – вскрышной одноковшовый экскаватор

front shovel - экскаватор с передней прямой лопатой

mining shovel - добычной одноковшовый экскаватор

electrically powered – работающий от электричества

dig - выкапывать, извлекать из земли

load – грузить, погрузить

mineral extraction – добыча минералов

revolving deck – поворачивающая платформа

counter weight - противовес

dipper - ковш, тип землечерпалки

capacity - мощность, нагрузка, вместимость, производительность; пропускная способность

overburden – верхний слой породы

hoist – подъём

crowd - рабочий ход (ковша экскаватора)

to dumpопрокидывать; сбрасывать

swing – поворот (ковша)

propel - приводить в движение,

retract - отводить; перемещать назад

dump height - высота разгрузки, высота опрокидывания (ковша погрузчика)

haul unit – средство перевозки грузов

III. Give the English equivalents to the following word combinations:

кран, механизмы управления и движения, стрела, электростанция, состоять из, приспособление впереди, рукоять с ковшом, гусеничный трак, установлен на основной платформе, открытый способ разработки горных пород, работать таким же способом, вертикально, горизонтально, точно установлен, сброс груза, поддержание точной высоты сброса, первоначальное состояние ковша (в сборке),

IV. Chose the right variant of the definition to the following words:

1) swing а) pulling the bucket up through the bank (i.e. the bank of material being dug)

2) propel б) moving the dipper handle out or in to control the depth of cut and when positioning to dump

3) hoist в) rotating the shovel between digging and dumping

4) crowd г) moving the shovel unit to different locations or dig positions

TEXT IV

Compact Excavator

I. Read and translate the text using the words given below:

A compact or mini excavator is a tracked or wheeled vehicle with an approximate operating weight from 0.7 to 8.5 tons. It generally includes a standard backfill blade and features independent boom swing.

Hydraulic Excavators are somewhat different from other construction equipment in that all movement and functions of the machine are accomplished through the transfer of hydraulic fluid. The compact excavator's work group and blade are activated by hydraulic fluid acting upon hydraulic cylinders. The excavator's slew (rotation) and travel functions are also activated by hydraulic fluid powering hydraulic motors.

Most compact hydraulic excavators have three distinct assemblies: house, undercarriage and workgroup.

The house structure contains the operator's compartment, engine compartment, hydraulic pump and distribution components. The house structure is attached to the top of the undercarriage via a swing bearing. The house, along with the workgroup, is able to rotate or slew upon the undercarriage without limit due to a hydraulic distribution valve which supplies oil to the undercarriage components.

Slew Slewing refers to rotating the excavator's house assembly. Unlike a conventional backhoe, the operator can slew the entire house and workgroup upon the undercarriage for spoil placement.

The undercarriage consists of rubber or steel tracks, drive sprockets, rollers, idlers and associated co


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