A. Henry IV Receiving the Portrait of Maria de' Medici

B. Raising of the Cross

C. Garden of Love

D. Fall of the Damned

V. Translate the text into English.

Питер Паул Рубенс, крупнейший фламандский художник XVII в., был одним из самых образованных людей своего време­ни. Первые годы своей творческой жизни Рубенс провел в Ита­лии. В Венеции он изучал работы Тициана, в Риме - произве­дения Микеланджело. В Италии Рубенс быстро стал знаменитым. С 1601 г. он - придворный художник герцога Гон-зага в Мантуе. В 1608 г. Рубенс вернулся на родину во Фланд­рию. Он много работал над монументальными произведениями. На одном из них - алтарном образе "Воздвижение креста" - изображен распятый Христос. В 1621-1625 гг. Рубенс получил заказ на цикл из 21 картины "Жизнь Марии Медичи" от французской королевы, вдовы Генриха IV, для украшения Люксембургского дворца. Это - блистательное творение монументально-декоративного искусства. Здесь наряду с аллегорическими образ­ами и мифологическими персонажами Рубенс изобразил реаль­ные исторические лица.

Искусство Рубенса - типичное выражение барокко. Ху­дожник часто писал картины на сюжеты античных мифов. Рубенс оказал большое влияние на последующее развитие западноевро­пейского искусства.

VI. Summarize the text.

VII. Topics for discussion.

1. Rubens's mode of life and production system.

2. Rubens's style and characters.

3. Rubens as a Baroque painter.

UNIT XIII VELAZQUEZ (1599-1660)

Diego Rodriguez de Silva у Velazquez was the greatest Spanish painter. Born in Seville, Velazquez studied with the local Mannerist Francisco Pacheco. In 1623 Velazquez was appointed court painter and settled permanently in Madrid. By 1627 he was established in the royal household and got the rank of court chamberlain. It gave him a residence attached to the palace and a studio inside it. For more than 30 years Velazquez painted King Philip IV and members of the royal family and court, produced historical, mythological, and religious pictures. His paintings were influenced by Rubens and the Venetian artists.

Velazquez never deserted the integrity of his own style. He did not adopt the characteristic devices of allegorical figures, col­umns, curtains of boiling clouds utilized by most Catholic painters of the seventeenth century. Velazquez was attached to nature.

He visited Italy twice and expressed a frank dislike for Raphael and thus for the Italian idealism. Velazquez admired Ti­tian and copied Tintoretto as an exercise in freedom of the brush. Throughout his life Velazquez was deeply concerned with the principles of composition and design.

When Caravaggesques realism penetrated Spain, it was felt by the young Velazquez as a liberation. Velazquez's interpretation of this movement was original. His Triumph of Bacchus, of about 1628, contains numerous reminiscences of Titian's Bacchanal of the Andrians, reinterpreted in basically Caravaggesques terms. Bacchus is a rather soft Spanish youth, with a towel and a cloak around his waist, as if he had just climbed out of a neighbouring stream. Crowned with wine leaves himself he mischievously puts a crown upon a kneeling worshiper, who is a simple Spanish peas­ant. Other peasants are gathered around. One peasant with bris­tling moustache and a hat pushed back hands a cup of wine to­ward a spectator, while another tries to grab it. The proletarian invitation to join in the delights of wine is painted with a brilliance unequalled by any other Latin painter of the seventeenth century. Yet the emphasis of the solidity of flesh and rough clothing shows that Velazquez is a Mediterranean painter.



The Surrender of Breda, of 1635, is a magnificent painting. It is remarkable for its excellent equilibrium. The groups of Spanish victors and defeated Dutchmen are scrupulously equal­ized. The surrender is carried out with dignity unlike in the con­ventional representations of the glorification of the victors and the disgrace of the conquered.

After the second trip to Italy (1649-51) Velazquez painted his most complex imaginary picture, based on the myth of Arachne, The Weavers, c.1656. The central scene, the moment when Minerva turns Arachne, a mortal girl who challenged the goddess of spinning and weaving to a contest, into a spider — is depicted in the background. In the foreground the weaver's work­room is produced so convincingly that in later centuries this painting was taken for a large genre scene. The emotion of the workshop, the spinning of the wheel, the handling of the tale as an ordinary event, make this painting one of the most outstanding of Velazquez's mythological works.

Velazquez's masterpiece, and one of the most extraordinary paintings of the seventeenth century is Las Meninas (The Ladies-in-waiting), of 1656. It was initially titled The Portrait of the Fam­ily. The painter is depicted in his studio in the royal palace, at work upon a canvas, so large that it can only be this very picture, unique in scale in his entire production. In the centre the light falls on the glittering figure of the five-year-old princess, who has paid the painter a visit, accompanied by two ladies-in-waiting, one of whom kneels to give her a cup of water. On the right two dwarfs are portrayed; one is gently teasing with his foot an elderly dog. Through the open door in the background wall light falls on a court official, pausing for a moment, on the steps. Most important of all the mirror alongside the door reflects the King and Queen. who also honour the painter with their presence. Despite the apparent ease and informality of the subject, the picture is care­fully balanced in a series of interlocking pyramids that can be ranked with the greatest designs of the Renaissance. In light and dark the illusion of the picture is as real as the intimate and quiet mood. Velazquez's brush suggests the reality of objects through the sparks and reflections of light on hair, silk, flowers and embroidery, spots of light and colour set down by touches of the brush create the illusion of form. Las Meninas is the culmination of Velazquez's work. In this painting the artist demonstrates to all time the nobility of his art - a rank that no king can award.

Velazquez had no immediate followers, but the painters of suc­ceeding centuries such as Goya and Manet highly esteemed him.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Velazquez [viPl{skwiz]; Madrid [m@Pdrid]; Seville [s@Pvil]; Philip [Pfilip]; Mediterranean [medit@Preinj@n]; crown [Pkraun]; Order [Pþd@]; Santiago [s{ntiPÓg@u]; Chamberlain [P¶eimb@lin]; Arachne [@Pr{kni]; Goya [Pgoj@]; Manet [m{Pnei]

NOTES

Triumph of Bacchus - "Вакх"

Surrender of Breda - "Сдача Бреды"

The Weavers - "Пряхи"

Las Meninas - "Менины"

TASKS

I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the fol­lowing statements true or false



1. For twenty years Velazquez painted King Philip IV and members of the royal family and court.

2. Velazquez adopted the characteristic machinery of allegori­cal figures, utilized by most Catholic painters of the seventeenth cen­tury.

3. Velazquez's Triumph of Bacchus contains numerous remi­niscences of the Nertherlandish masters.

4. The Surrender of Breda is a work of universal importance.

5. In The Weavers the central scene is depicted in the fore­ground.

6. In Las Meninas Velazquez shows the nobility of his art.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. Where was Velazquez trained? What position did he obtain at the court?

2. Whose works did Velazquez distaste and whose paintings did he admire? What did Caravaggesques realism mean to Velazquez?

3. What did Velazquez depict in the Triumph of Bacchus? What shows that Velazquez is a Mediterranean painter?

4. What is pictured in the Surrender of Breda? In what way does it differ from other pictures of this kind?

5. What makes The Weavers Velazquez's most complex alle­gorical painting? What legend was the basis of this work of art?

6. What does Las Meninas portray? What makes Las Meninas Velazquez's masterpiece? What are the figures depicted in this pic­ture doing? What is Las Meninas (a group portrait, a self-portrait or a genre painting)?

III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

to be appointed court painter; to settle permanently in; royal household; to get the rank of; Court Chamberlain; a residence at­tached to the palace; members of the royal family and court; the integ­rity of one's style; the characteristic devices; allegorical figures; to be attached to nature; freedom of the brush; throughout the life; princi­ples of composition; Caravaggesques realism; numerous reminis­cences; a Mediterranean painter; to fall under the influence of; the studio in the royal palace; to work upon a canvas; to create the illu­sion of form unique in scale; to pay the painter a visit; dwarfs; to honour the painter with the presence; informality of the subject; in­terlocking pyramids.

ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

целостность стиля; иллюзия формы; члены королевской семьи и двора; принципы композиции и рисунка; предшествую­щий век; получить должность; придворный художник; ряд пере­секающихся пирамид; карлики; в светотени; аллегорические об­разы; типичные атрибуты; гофмейстер; свобода мазка; много­численные цитаты из; постоянно поселиться в; трактовка направ­ления; средиземноморский художник; уникальная по масштабу картина; почтить своим присутствием студию художника.

iii. Make up sentences ofyour own with the given phrases.

iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) local; court; trip; interpret; supreme; reminiscences; dwarfs; demonstrate; appoint; attain;

b) royal household; render; exquisite; quotations; Lilliputians; show; place; gain; journey; native.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Velazquez's works of art. Match them up to the given titles..

1. The mirror alongside the door re- flects the King and Queen, who honour the painter with their presence.

2. Crowned with wine leaves himself he mischievously puts a crown upon a kneeling worshiper.

3. The painting is noted for its clas- sical equilibrium.

4. This painting is one of the most significant of Velazquez's mythological works.

A. Triumph of Bacchus

B. Surrender of Breda

C. The Weavers

D. Las Meninas

V. Translate the text into English.

Диего Родригос де Сильва Веласкес - выдающийся ху­дожник "золотого испанского века", родился в Севилье, учился у местного художника Франсиско Пачеко.

В 1626 г. Веласкес переехал в Мадрид и стал придворным художником короля Филиппа IV. В 1627 г. художник получил звание гофмейстера. После знакомства с Рубенсом, который по­сетил Испанию в 1628 г. Веласкес отправился в Италию, где про­вел три года. Работы итальянских художников оказали большое влияние на Веласкеса. Его стиль стал более свободным и бле­стящим, колорит менее темным в тенях.

В конце 20-х годов Веласкес написал картину "Вакх". Эту мифологическую сцену он интерпретировал как жанровую. Идеализации нет даже в фигуре самого Вакха. Контрасты света и тени, золотистый тон - все типичные черты караваджизма, пере­плетаются с характерными только для Веласкеса чертами.

В последнее десятилетие жизни художник написал три самых известных картины: "Венера с зеркалом", "Менины", "Пряхи". "Менины" - это, по своей сути, групповой портрет. Художник, а это автопортрет самого Веласкеса, у мольберта пишет короля и королеву, отражение которых зрители видят в зеркале. На переднем плане изображена инфанта Маргарита в окружении фрейлин, карлицы, придворных и собаки. В дверях художник поместил фигуру канцлера. Композиция картины объ­единяет черты группового портрета и жанровой картины. Влия­ние Веласкеса на искусство последующих веков велико. Он вдохновлял художников от романтиков до пост­импрессионистов.

VI. Summarize the text.

VII. Topics for discussion.

1. Velazquez's realism.

2. Velazquez's artistic heritage.

UNIT XIV THE 'LITTLE MASTERS'

The open market system, under which Dutch pictures were sold, produced artists skilful in painting a particular type of sub­ject. They specialized in landscapes, riverscapes, seascapes, city-scapes, travelscapes; skating scenes, moonlight scenes, shipping and naval battles; interiors, exteriors; gardens, polite conversa­tions, parlour intrigue, housekeeping, tavern brawls; hunting scenes, churches, still lifes and portraits, single, double, or group.

At least forty of the 'little masters' are very talented.

An early leader of Dutch landscape painting, Jan van Goyen (1596-1656), was one of the Dutch masters to place human figures to a position in which they could no longer determine the mood of a scene but merely establish the scale. Van Goyen was fascinated by water. But the celestial architecture of shifting clouds was even more important than water in his landscapes. In River Scene, painted by Van Goyen shortly before his death, the land with fish­ermen's cottages, windmills, and a distant church, is visible only in tiny patches. All else is clouds and water, save for two boats mov­ing slowly toward the centre. People are mere spots, as are the flying gulls. An almost monochromatic vision, limited to translu­cent browns in the foreground and grey greens elsewhere, is regis­tered by means of light, shimmering water, and distant land.

A View of Haarlem, of about 1670, by Jacob van Ruisdael (1628/29-82), opens up an immense prospect from the vantage point of the dunes. The city appears only on the flat horizon, a sparkle of windmills and spires is dominated by the mass of the Great Church. The immensity of the space is increased by the light falling from between clouds on the farmhouses and the linens whitening in the foreground. The birds fly higher and the clouds seem more remote than in Van Goyen's picture.

One of the greatest Dutch landscapes is the Avenue at Middelbarnis, of 1689, by Meyndert Hobbema (1638-1709), Ruisdael's pupil. Constructed on the humble theme of a rutted country road plunging into the picture between feathery trees that have long lost lower branches for use as firewood, the spatial climax is compel­ling.

Albert Cuyp (1620-91), influenced by Dutch painters who had travelled in Italy, preserves a similar feeling for space in his Landscape with Cattle and Figures, of about 1650, which is intensi­fied by the animals and people grouped in the foreground.

The art of Pieter De Hooch (1629-after 1684) glorifies the harmony of the perfect bourgeois household, with everything in its proper place and respect for cleanliness and order raised almost to a religious level. The Linen Cupboard, of 1663, is De Hooch's Baroque climax. In this picture, illuminated by an unseen win­dow, De Hooch depicts the simple act of counting neatly folded sheets taken from their carved and inlaid cabinet in an interior whose cleanliness matches its perfect perspective and its clear bright colour; the black-and-white marble floor leads the eye through the door to the view across the street. By means of pic­tures on the wall the painter shows that art is a part of the ideal daily life.

The opposite of De Hooch's religious order is the disorder of Jan Steen (1625/26-79), who revived the humour of the Late Gothic burlesque. To this day a "Jan Steen household" is the Dutch expression for a house in which nothing goes right. Every­thing goes wrong in The World Upside Down, which is a parody on De Hooch's Linen Cupboard. It was also intended as a moraliz­ing picture. Jan Steen, who kept a tavern, was never tired of rep­resenting the effects of visits to him. Here the scene shifts to the kitchen; the same lady of the house in the same costume as in De Hooch's Linen Cupboard has fallen asleep; beer runs from the keg over a floor strewn with garbage, a pipe and a hat; children, a pig, a dog, a duck, and a monkey are where they ought not to be and are doing what they ought not to do. The housemaid hands a glass of wine to her sweetheart, nobody pays any attention to an elderly man reading from a book or to an old woman trying to bring some order into the situation. To intensify the effect, Steen is treating his figures with conviction and vigour.

Dutch still lifes were often intended to appeal to the eye and the palate at once. Some are crowded with an unappetizing profu­sion of fruit or game, but the most tasteful and tasty are those restricted to the makings of between-meals snacks (they are tradi­tionally referred to as 'breakfast pieces'). White wine, a bit of sea­food or ham, lemon, pepper, and salt are the subjects, along with polished silver, crystal goblets and a rumpled tablecloth. The spec­tator is tantalized not only by the delicacy with which the carefully selected objects arc painted, but also by the expensive carelessness with which a lemon has been left partly peeled and a silver cup overturned.

Willem Heda (1599-1680/82) was the master of still life. In his Still Life, despite limitations of subject matter, he demonstrates an unexpected eloquence in the rendering of golden light, as well as sensitivity in establishing the precise relationships between transparent, translucent, reflecting, and mat surfaces - a silent drama of pure sense presented in the style of a Caravaggio relig­ious scene against the typical background of nowhere, fluctuating between shadow and light.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Hobbema ['hobim@]; Hals [h{ls]; Cuyp [kaip]; Ruisdael [PraIzdÓl]; Haarlem [PhÓl@m]; genre [PÆÓnr@]; burlesque [býPlesk]; fluctuate [Pflök¶ueit]; eloquence [Pel@kw@ns]; palate [Pp{lit]; horizon [h@Praizn]; tantalise [Pt{nt@laiz]; monochrome [Pmon@kr@um]

TASKS

I. Read the text. Make sure you understand it. Mark the fol­lowing statements true or false.

1. Jan van Goyen placed figures to a dominant position.

2. Heda's still-lifes are referred to as "breakfast pieces".

3. De Hooch represented genre scenes of the lower classes life.

4. Jacob van Ruisdael was the best Dutch landscape painter.

5. To this day a "Jan Steen household" is the Dutch expres­sion for the harmony of the perfect bourgeois household.

6. One of the greatest Dutch landscapes is the Avenue at Middelbarnis by Meyndert Hobbema.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. What system produced the "little masters"? In what did they specialize? Were all the "little masters" of high quality?

2. What was Jan van Goyen famous for? What did he like to paint? What is Van Goyen's masterpiece? What is depicted in this picture?

3. What did Jacob van Ruisdael paint in 1670? What is this landscape noted for? How is the immensity of the space increased?

4. What did Albert Cuyp paint in 1650? How did he inten­sify the space?

5. What is represented in the Linen Cupboard? How did De Hooch render the religious order of the bourgeois life? What did the painter show by means of pictures on the wall?

6. What kind of picture is the World Upside Down? What does it demonstrate?

7. What do Dutch still lifes depict? Who was one of the chief practitioners of Dutch still lifes ? What did he demonstrate in his paintings? What did he establish?

III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

genre scenes; a sense of composition and colour; translucent browns; still life; polished silver; the harmony of the bourgeois household; to establish the relationships between transparent and mat surfaces; vantage point; to be of extremely high quality; the realm of space and light; to appeal to the eye and the palate; to determine the mood of the scene; the celestial architecture of shifting clouds; dashing brushwork; windmills and spires; break­fast pieces; to make pictures lively; housemaid; a monochromatic vision; moralizing picture; carved and inlaid cabinet; according to the compositional principles; sketchy touches of the brush; to handle figures with conviction and power; burlesque; religious scenes; riverscapes; seascapes; travelscapes; hunting scenes.

ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

оживить картину; стремительные мазки; царство про­странства и света; система открытого рынка; "завтраки"; начи­щенное серебро; жанровая живопись; дорожный пейзаж; пере­местить сцену на кухню; моралистическая картина; морские битвы; эскизные мазки; специализироваться по отдельным видам тематики; шумные сцены в таверне; небесная архитектура дви­жущихся облаков; чувство композиции и цвета; одноцветная кар­тина; прославлять гармонию буржуазного быта; натюрморт; воз­родить поздне-готический бурлеск; резной инкрустированный комод; великолепная панорама; место, дающее хороший обзор.

iii. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) remote; to fluctuate; shimmering; burlesque; transparent; celestial;

b) to wave; distant; glowing; parody; translucent; heavenly.

IV. Here are names of the "Little Masters". Match them up to the titles of the paintings. Describe these works of art.

1. Pieter De riooch

2. W i I lem С laesz Heda

3. Jan van Goyen

4. Jan Steen

5. Aelbert Cuyp

6. Meyndert Hobbema

7. Jacob van Ruisdael

A. Landscape with Cattle

B. Still Life

C. Avenue at Middelbarnis

D. A View of Haarlem

E. The World Upside Down

F. Linen Cupboard

G. River Scene

V. Translate the text into English and Figures.

Станковая живопись - основное достижение голланд­ского искусства XVII в. Бытовая живопись стала одним из ведущих жанров. В истории искусства создатели этого жанра называются "малыми голландцами". Голландцы хотели ви­деть в картинах весь мир. Каждый состоятельный (well-to-do) голландец считал картину лучшим украшением своего жи­лища. Большой спрос и связанная с этим конкуренция вызва­ли специализацию художников по отдельным видам темати­ки: одни писали портреты, другие - жанровые сцены, натюрморты, пейзажи: городские, сельские, дорожные. Рас­цвет пейзажной живописи в голландской школе относится к середине XVII в. Крупнейшим мастером реалистического пей­зажа был Якоб ван Рейсдал.

Наивысшего расцвета достиг натюрморт. Виллем Хеда чаще всего изображает "завтраки": блюда с окороком или пи­рогом на скромно сервированном столе. С течением времени "завтраки" Хеды сменяются роскошными "десертами" Калфа. На смену простой утвари приходят мраморные столы, ковровые скатерти, серебряные кубки, хрустальные бокалы.

VI. Summarize the text.

VII. Topics for discussion.

1. Dutch landscape.

2. Dutch genre painting.

3. Dutch still-life.

UNIT XV HALS (1581/85-1666)

Recognized today as one of the most brilliant of all portrait­ists, Frans Hals was probably born in Antwerp and was brought to Haarlem as a child. Interested in human face and figure, Hals was blessed with a gift for catching the individual in a moment of action, feeling, perception, or expression and recording that mo­ment with unerring strokes. Among his early commissions were group portraits of the militia companies that had been largely re­sponsible for defending the new Dutch republic in the hostile world; these paintings radiate its self-confidence and optimism. Hals usually shows the citizen-soldiers in the midst of the ban­quets. The compositions, picturing a dozen or more males, mostly corpulent and middle-aged, each of whom had paid equally and expected to be recognizable, were not conductive to imaginative painting. The predecessors of Hals had composed these group portraits in alignments hardly superior compositionally to a mod­ern class photograph. It was the genius of Rembrandt to raise them to a level of high drama. But Hals in his Banquet of the Offi­cers of the Saint George Guard Company, of 1616 has a superb job within the limitations of the traditional type. The moment is re­laxed, the gentlemen turn toward each other or toward the painter as if he had been painting the whole group at once, which was not certainly the case. Massive Baroque diagonals - the curtain pulled aside, the flag, the poses, the ruffs - tie the picture together into a rich pattern of white and flashing colours against the black cos­tumes. Broad brushstrokes indicate the passage of light on colour with a flash and sparkle unknown even to Rubens.

The warmth of Hals's early style is seen in The Laughing Cavalier. The date 1624 and the subject's age 26 are inscribed in the background, and since the Cavalier's diagonal shadow also falls on it, it is clearly a wall. The Caravaggesque nowhere is thus converted into a definite here. The wall is irradiated with light and seems insubstantial. The armours proclivities of the young man are indicated by the arrows, torches and bees of Cupid and the winged staff and hat of Mercury embroidered in red, silver and gold on the dark brown of his slashed sleeve, with his glowing complexion, dangerous moustaches, snowy ruff and dashing hat, the subject is the symbol of Baroque gallantry. The climax of the painting is the taunting smile on which every compositional force converges.

The opposite of this glittering portrait is the sombre Malle Babbe, of about 1630-33. Nobody knows who the old creature was or the meaning of her nickname. Often called an "old crone" she might be from forty to sixty years old. Hals has caught her in the midst of a fit of insane laughter. Possibly she is a town idiot and the owl on her shoulder is a symbol of foolishness. The expression seized in a storm of strokes is rendered with a demonic intensity.

About 1664 when he was past 80, Hals showed a still differ­ent side of his character and ability in the Regentesses of the Old Man's Almshouse. Painted almost entirely in black and white and shades of grey, this solemn picture is united by diagonal move­ments. The painter had only devastated faces and white collars of the women as component elements. Each of the subjects has re­acted in a separate way to age and experience, yet all participate in a calm acceptance of the effects of time. In its simplicity the composition shows an expressive depth unexpected in the generally excited Hals.

Make sure you know how to pronounce the following words:

Hals [h{ls]; Haarlem [PhÓl@m]; Antwerp [P{ntwýp]; cavalier [k@v@Pli@]; banquet [Pb{nkwit]; regentess [PrÖdÆ@ntis]

NOTES

Banquet of the Officers of the Saint George Guard Company - "Портрет офицеров гильдии святого Георгия "

The Laughing Cavalier - "Портрет молодого офицера"

Malle Babbe - "Мале Бабе"

Regentesses of the Old Man's Almshouse - "Регентши приюта для престарелых"

TASKS

I. Read the text. Mark the following statements true or false

1. Today Hals is recognized as the most brilliant portraitist.

2. Hals shows citizen-soldiers in the midst of the banquets.

3. Malle Babbe is a glittering portrait.

4. The warmth of Hals's early style is seen in the Regentesses of the Old Man's Almshouse.

5. The Laughing Cavalier is the symbol of Baroque gallantry.

6. The subjects of the Regentesses of the Old Man's Alms­house participate in a calm acceptance of the effects of time.

II. How well have you read? Can you answer the following questions?

1. What gift was Hals blessed with?

2. What were Hals's early commissions? Why were not Hals's portraits conductive to imaginative painting? How did Hals's predecessors compose their group portraits? Who could raise group portraits to a level of high drama?

3. What is the Banquet of the Officers of the Saint George Guard Company noted for? What has Hals pictured in this work of art? What ties the picture together?

4. Where is the warmth of Hals's early style seen? How old is the subject? What makes the subject the symbol of Baroque gallantry? How did Hals interpret the Caravaggesque nowhere?

5. What is the opposite of The Laughing Cavalier? When was it painted? Whom has Hals depicted in it?

6. In what painting did Hals show a different side of his character? How old was he at that time? What did the painter show in this work?

III. i. Give Russian equivalents of the following phrases:

to catch the individual in a moment of action; group por­traits in alignments; unerring strokes; a moment of perception; to be blessed with the gift; effects of time; to radiate one's self-confidence; Caravaggesque nowhere; a slashed sleeve; sketchy brushstrokes; armours proclivities; a taunting smile; to be irradiated with light; snowy ruff; a dashing hat; devastated faces; to be conductive to; the predecessors of the painter; show the citizen-soldiers in the midst of the banquets; to raise the portraits to a level of high drama; to tie the picture together; a glittering portrait; militia companies; a solemn picture; component elements.

ii. Give English equivalents of the following phrases:

опустошенные лица; быть наделенным даром; широкие мазки; сияющий портрет; лихо заломленная шляпа; круглый плоеный жесткий воротник; стрелковые гильдии; предшествен­ники художника; след времени; полные, средних лет мужчины; связать картину воедино; насмешливая улыбка; изображать стрельцов в разгар веселого застолья; склонность к военному искусству; сиять самоуверенностью; групповой портрет, постро­енных в шеренгу людей; рукав с разрезами; эскизная манера письма; поздний период творчества; поднять на уровень драмы.

iii. Make up sentences of your own with the given phrases.

iv. Arrange the following in the pairs of synonyms:

a) strokes; radiate; traditional; indicate; predecessor;

b) conventional; precursor; brushwork; shimmer; show.

IV. Here are descriptions of some of Hals's works of art. Match them up to the given titles.

1. The model was caught in the midst of a fit of insane laughter.

2. The painter had only devastated faces and white collars of the figures as component elements.

3. The climax of the painting is the taunting smile.

4. Broad brushstrokes indicate the passage of light on colour with a flash and sparkle unknown even to Rubens.

A. The Laughing Cavalier


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